Communication Skills(1)

Communication Concepts and Process

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Chapter 1: Communication Concepts and Process


1.1 Introductory Note

1.2 Definitions of Communication 

1.3 Communication Components 

1.4 Factors in the Definition

1.5 Communication Model

1.6 Basic Elements of Communication Model 

1.7 Forms of Communication

1.8 Communication Context

1.9 Culture and Communication

1.10 Conclusion  


1.1 Introductory Note








1.1 Introductory Note 

This chapter presents the communication process.  It describes the basic elements of the communication process and defines concepts.  It also sheds light on forms of communication and basic characteristics of each form.


Lastly, the chapter reviews the contents that communication process is functioning within.


Our ability to communicate and the different forms our communication takes are very often taken for granted.  The communication process is fundamental for human survival.  It is essential to the development of the individual, to the formation and continued existence of groups and to the interrelations among groups.


Communication is as old as human history; many indicators prove that effective communication is the main factor enhancing civilization through history.  This is why communication is considered multi-culture phenomena, Ancient–Greeks, Ancient–Egyptians, Ancient–Chinese, Arabs, Europeans and Americans have got their impact on communication.


On the other hand, the study of human communication is inter-disciplinary.  It began with the mathematically theory of communication by Claude E. Shanon and Warren Weaver in 1949, scientists considered as strictly mathematical.  Their aim was to measure the amount of information, in the mess ages, that is transmitted through the media on the telephone; however, as years passed by, inter-disciplinary approaches to study human communication came up.  They rely on psychology, sociology, speech communication, political, journalism, anthropology management, education, marketing and philosophy.  Thus, we can say that every discipline concerned with human behavior must deal with communication.


The question here is

What is communication?

There are many definitions of communication:



Definitions of Communication

1.2 Definitions of Communication


Schramm defines communication as "a tool that makes societies possible and distinguish human from other societies”.

Berelson and Steiner define communication as the transmission of information, ideas, emotions, skills through the use of symbols, words, pictures, figures, and graph.


Rogers says, “Communication is the process of transmitting ideas, information, and attitudes from the source to a receiver for the purpose of influencing with intent”.


Kar defines communication as "all those planned or unplanned processes through which one person influences behavior of others."


A more comprehensive suggested definition to define communication would be: “a process of transmitting ideas, information, attitudes (images which we have formulated for ourselves) by the use of symbols, words, pictures, figures from the source (who is the originator of the message) to a receiver, for the purpose of influencing with intent”.  So communication is considered as a process through which senders and receivers of messages interact in a given social context.


The concept of communication simply relies on four basic components.


1.3 Communication Components

1.3 Communication Components 

As shown in Figure 1.1, we have a sender who produces a message to receivers Depending on the previous definitions, we can conclude that communication is a process used to timely and properly exchange information between a sender and a receiver to achieve a desired goal.

Figure 1.1: Communication component



Factors in the Definition

1.4 Factors in the Definition

A) Process: It suggests that the components of interaction are dynamic in nature.  They can not be regarded as unchanging elements in time and space.  This simply means that no single aspect of communication can be meaningfully understood apart from the other elements, as shown in Figure 1.2.


B) Interaction: It is the process of linking between senders and receivers of the message.  The process specifies interaction or linkages between or among countless factors, so that the changes in any set of forces affect the operation of all other processes to produce a total effect.


The concept of interaction is central to an understanding of the concept of process in communication. Communication is an attempt to bridge the gap between two individuals through producing and receiving messages which have meaning for both.


C) Social Context: Human communication is, to a great extent, influenced by the social context in which it occurs.  The context or the situation that consists of a set of rules which govern the origin, flow and effect of the messages.


1.5 Communication Model

1.5 Communication Model


It describes what is necessary for an act of communication to take place. A model represents the major features and eliminates the unnecessary details of communication.

1.5.1 Functions of Communication Models


  1. To clarify the scope of human interaction showing it to be a circular, complex, continuous dynamic, or a coding process.
  2. To point out where to book and under what conditions to analyze different responses.
  3. To show the variables in human communication.
  4. Used as a frame work in researches.


1.5.2 Communication Model 

Aristotle said that a researcher has to look for three communication ingredients:

  1. The person who speaks.
  2. The speech that he produces.
  3. The person who listens.


One of the most used

The contemporary models was developed in 1949 by Claude Shannon, a mathematician and explained by the non-mathematician, Warren Weaver.


Shannon and Weaver were not talking about human communication but about electronic communication.


In fact, Shannon was working for the Bell telephone laboratory, but his model was found useful in describing human communication.

Shannon–Weaver model is consistent with Aristotle’s position, see Figure 1.3. If we translate the source into the speaker, the signal into the speech and the destination into listener, we have the Aristotelian model, plus two added ingredients: a transmitter which sends out the source’s message and a receiver, which catches the message from destination.  However, if we choose to draw a diagram of human communication, we must remember that the process itself is more complicated than a picture or description of it, which are likely to draw. Most of the communication process is in the black box of our central nervous system, the content which we understand vaguely.


Most of our current communication models are similar to Aristotle’s, though some what more complex. They differ partly in terminology and partly in differences in the point of view of the disciplines out of which they emerged.

Figure 1.3: Shannon – Weaver model



Basic Elements of Communication Model

1.6 Basic Elements of Communication Model

 Researchers call our attention to several elements in the communication process: source, message, channel, receiver, effect, feedback and more.  The communication process remains basically the same for interpersonal and mass communication.  The psychology of communication is basically the same in both, see Figure 1.4.

1.6.1 Source/Encoder


We can say that all human communication has some source, some person or group of persons with a purpose for communicating.  The source has ideas, needs, intentions, information and a purpose for communication, which he translated into a code, a language.  This is performed by the encoder who is responsible for taking the ideas of the source and putting them in a code, expressing the source’s purpose in a form of a message.  As source encoder, our communication skill levels determine on communication fidelity in two ways:

1-   They affect our ability to analyze our purpose and intentions, our ability to say some thing when we communicate.

2-   They affect our ability to encode messages which express what we intend.

3-   There are at least four kinds of factors within the source, which can increase the fidelity in communication.  These are:

1-             Communication skills.

2-             Attitude.

3-             Knowledge level.

4-             Socio-cultural system.

1.6.2 Receiver/Decoder

The receiver is the most important link in the communication processIf the source does not reach the receiver with his message, he might as well have talked to himself.  The receiver is the target of communication that we want to have the positive response.


Both the source and the receiver can be analyzed in terms of four factors: their communication skills, attitudes, knowledge levels, cultural contexts and social systems.  The receiver always has to be kept in mind when the source makes decisions concerning different communication variables.


The relationship between the source and the receiver may include:


            - Stimulus                                           - Response

            - Sender                                             - Receiver

            - Encoder                                           - Decoder

            - Source                                             - Destination

            - Actor                                                 - Audience

            - Communicator                                - Communicate


The left column represents the part of guiding the act of communication.  The right–column represents those participants who by their receiving the message allow the communicative act to be completed and thus have an effect.


1.6.3 Messages


The message is the translation of ideas proposes and intentions into a code and a systematic set of symbols. Berlo says that there are three factors that should be taken into account considering the message:

A.     Message code: which has to do with the way in which symbols are structured?

B.     Content: the selection of material to express the purpose.

C.    Treatment: the way in which the message is presented, that is frequency and emphasis.


Another factor is the filter or frame of reference through which the audience receives the message which includes meanings that may enhance or cripple the effect.


Meanings are references (ideas, images and thoughts) expressed in symbols.  For communication to occur at all, the source and receiver must have at least some minimum degree of prior experience, some level of similarity and some level of shared meanings at the other extreme, no two individuals have exactly the same experience.  Hence, the symbols in the message have somewhat different meanings for the source and the receiver.


Furthermore, the individual experience is continuous, so does his meaning related to some symbol which will change over time.  Many failures in communication are due to mistaken assumptions by source, or receiver, about the correspondence of the meaning of the symbol they exchange.

The source and receiver have to have a minimum degree of common experience, and a common frame of reference.  This fact led Berlo to state: “Meanings are in people not in messages”.


1.6.4 Frame of Reference

It is the degree by which the sender and receiver overlap in various frames of communication.  The communicator, who is addressing different personalities at the same time, cannot adjust an appeal to meet their individual reaction. An approach that convinces one part of the audience may not agree with another part. The successful communicator is one who finds the right method of expression to establish empathy, with the largest number of individuals in the audience.  The receiver filters the message in terms of frame of reference.


Each person has stored experience, consisting of beliefs and values related to himself and to his group.  A message that challenges these beliefs or values may be rejected, distorted or misinterpreted.


In case where beliefs are firmly fixed, the communicator finds it is often more effective to try to redirect existing attitudes slightly than to attack them, as shown in Figure 1.5.

1.6.5 Dimensions of the Message


1)     Elements: The ideas that is included in the message.

2)     Structure: The organization of the message.

3)     Production: Which means the length and placement of the message?


1.6.6 Characteristics of the Message


a)  The Amount of Communication

It includes the total volume of information as well as content covered. Too little information may not answer all questions to the receiver and result in a rejection of the message.  Too much information may not be efficiently integrated and may confuse the receiver.  In general, people tend to forget details of communication; this is why sender needs to level the message and needs sharpening which emphasizes a limited number of details.


b)  The Frequency of Communication

Repeated exposure to varied communication messages reinforces the tendency of act in those receiversRepetition may irritate the audience but varying the content of the message serves the purpose of reminding the receiver of the general ideas that are being discussed.


1.6.7 Communication Channel


It is the medium utilized to convey a message; it is the means by which a message travels between the communications senders to the communication receiver.


1.6.8 Channel Dimension


These dimensions permit the investigator to evaluate the effectiveness of different communication channels these dimensions include:


1. Channel Credibility: It is the expertness and trustworthiness of a channel as perceived by the receivers. Channel credibility is directly linked to communicator and audience characteristics however print media are perceived by member of upper socio–economic grouping as being more credible, while television is perceived as more credible by lower socio-economic groupings.


2. Channel Feedback: It is known as the opportunity a channel provides for the receiver to respond immediately and to affect the source of the message in communication process. Face-to-face communication tends to facilitate feedback, while mass communication tends to restrict it.


3. Channel Involvement (or participation): It is the effort required by all senses in order to receive information from a communication channel, face-to-face communication offers the greatest possibility for involvement where print media offer the least possibility for involvement.


4. Channel Availability: The frequency and extent to which a channel may be used to reach a given audience. In some geographic areas, some channels may not be available such as television in mountained areas or print media in highly illiterate areas.


5. Channel Permanency (or ability to preserve a message): The ability of a communication channel over time to carry the message. Print media have this dimension but contrast radio does not.


6. Channel Multiplicative Power: The channel ability to cover areas with speed and timeliness.  The mass media can multiply a message and make it available to large numbers of people while face-to-face communication is low in this dimension.


7. Channel Complementary: The channel ability to supplement the communicative work of another channel.  Both mass media and interpersonal channels have proven to be high on this dimension.


1.6.9 Effects


Communication effects represent the changes in the receiver behavior that occur as a result of transmission of the message.  So, when we speak of “Effective Communication,” we mean communication that result in changes of receiver’s behavior that were intended by the source.


There are few propositions about communication effects, these are as follows:

1-             There are many levels of effect: attention to inner confirmation to inner change to, overt action.

2-             Much of the effect and its mechanism is hidden in our cognitive structure.  It can be recognized from visible behavior or physical manifestations.

3-             Complex behavior usually has complex causes. The effects are the goals of all communication processes.


1.6.10 Feedback


Feedback is an idea derived from engineering communication theory. It means a return flow from the message.  In human communication, a speaker hears his words at the same time, or approximately at the same, that the other party hears them.  He can then judge for himself how well he has spoken.


Therefore, feedback is a response by the receiver to the source’s message, which the source may use to modify his further message. From that perspective, feedback may be thought of as message conveying “knowledge of communication effectiveness.


There are two kinds of feedback:

1-     Positive Feedback: Confirms the source that the intended effect of the message was achieved. Positive feedback tells the source that every thing is going in the desired way.

2-     Negative Feedback: informs the source that the intended effect of the message was not achieved, as shown in Figure 1.6.

1.6.11 Communication Noise


Communication channels are subject to noise. Noise can be identified as the loss of meaning during the transmission.


There are two major types of noise:


1. Channel Noise: This type of noise includes any disturbance, which interferes with the physical transmission of the message.  In mass communication channel noise includes static on the radio, ink in the newspaper, a rolling screen in television, or type too small to read in a magazine.  In interpersonal communication, some one speaking in a room over another conversation, a door shutting etc.


2. Semantic Noise: This type of noise results in the wrong interpretation of messages, even though the message is received exactly as it was sent such as words too difficult, subject too difficult for receiver to understand also differences of selected meaning of words between the message sender and a receiver, for example receiver thinking that the words prints to something different than that is intended by the sender. One word may have many different interpretations, see Figure 1.7.



Forms of Communication

1.7 Forms of Communication


There are various classifications of forms of communication. Basically we can distinguish between two main forms of communication.


1. Verbal communication: which includes:

a)          Oral communication such as talking to oneself, dialogue, discussion between two people, telephone calls.

b)          Visual communication such as maps, graphic, traffic signals, advertisement …etc.

c)           Written communication such as memos, letters reports, papers.

d)          Electronic which is communication facilitated by an interface with a computer, modem, telephone fax, E-mail …etc, as shown in Figure 1.8.

2. Non-verbal communication: Such as body movement facial expression and voice etc.


Depending upon these basic forms of communication, many researchers agreed to classify forms of communication as:


1. Intrapersonal Communication: It is a communication transaction that takes place within the individual, this is the silent talking all of us do to ourselves such as thinking, remembering, dreaming and deciding. Intrapersonal communication is made possible because man become object to himself.  That is he both produces and receives to same message.  This type of communication fills more time in our experience because in every communication are always subject to our own private interpretation.


2. Interpersonal Communication: It is the process of face-to-face interaction between sender and receiver such as group meetings, interviews, conversations among individuals.  It has the advantage of a two-way communication with immediate feedback.


Characteristics of interpersonal communication:

1-      There is a perceptual engagement on the part of two or more people in physical proximity.

2-      Perceptual engagement allows focused interaction between a single focus of cognitive and visual attention as in a conversation.  In focused interaction, each participant supplies cues supplies by other participant.

3-      In this focused interaction, there will be an exchange of messages. In this exchange, the participants represent to each other cues they think the other will interpret as intended.

4-      The interaction is face to face, therefore all senses may be utilized and participants confront each other totally.

5-      The interpersonal setting is unstructured; few rules govern form or content of interpersonal messages.


Interpersonal communication is very effective in influencing attitudes and behavior. Hazarded focused in its characteristics in that field:


1-     Personal contacts are casual, difficult to avoid.

2-     People are likely to put their trust in the judgment and view point of persons whom they know, like and respect.

3-     Personal communication influence people through what is said and by personal control in which the source is as important as the content itself.

4-     There is a great flexibility in the content of interpersonal communication.  If the communication meets resistance from the receivers, he can change the line to meet their reaction.

5-     In face-to-face communication a person can ask questions, help direct the communication and make some control over it.

6-     In face-to-face situation, there is a chance for quick exchange of information. Two-way communication that gives a chance for immediate feedback to evaluate the effect of the signs one puts out, to correct to explain and to answer objections.

7-     In face-to-face communication it is possible to stimulate all the senses.  It is also possible to communicate more for complete information.

8-     In face-to-face communication high percentage of the available information is non-verbal. The silent language of culture, gesture, body movement constitutes a large part of interpersonal communication.


1.7.1 Medio Communication


It is the area of communication which interfaces between interpersonal communication and mass communication. It is an intermediate level of communication. Medio is derived from Latin, meaning middle.


Medio communication is distinguished by the presence of technical instrument used under restricted conditions.


Medio communication is similar to mass communication in the following:

1.      Participants in media can be heterogeneous.

2.      Participant also can be in different physical locations.

3.      The presence of a technical channel.


Medio communication is similar to interpersonal communication in:

1.      Source and receiver are known to each other.

2.      The message is private more than public.

3.      Message receivers are small in number.

4.      The interaction pattern is to a fair degree, unstructured.


Medio communication includes point-to-point tele-communication, surveillance telecommunication, closed circuit television and home movies.


1.7.2 Telecommunication:


It is a special type of communication that uses electromagnetic devices to cover distance.  It has similar audience characteristics with interpersonal communication. Point-to-point communication includes telephone, teletype, telegraph, mobile, radio, air-to-ground radio.


1.7.3 Surveillance Telecommunication


It is used for “scanning the horizon” for danger signals. Surveillance telecommunication includes radar, atmospheric pollution monitoring, weather satellite and other such telecommunication systems.


1.7.4 Mass Communication:


It is the process through which communication is directed simultaneously (immediately) to a large, heterogeneous (different) and anonymous (unknown) audience on a massive scale.


Messages are transmitted publicly and are transient in nature.  The communicator works in a complex organization.


The mass media includes the following:

A.     Print media: news papers magazines, books etc.

B.     Electronic media: radio programs, audio recordings, T.V. programs.


The mass media advent required two developments:

1-     A relatively advent technology to produce the necessary instruments.

2-     An accompanying level of literacy among large numbers of people to utilize the disseminated information.


The mass media may also be compared on the following dimensions:


1-     The medium fidelity (objectivity) in presenting the following dimensions of an original event:

A.     Verbal symbols.

B.     Picture symbols.

C.    Color.

D.    Sound.

E.     Emotions.

2-     The medium’s delivery speed, the length of time between an event and when the medium is able to inform people about it.

3-     The medium’s portability, the ease with which the medium can be moved about the environment, both to cover news stories and to reach its audience.

4-     The extensiveness of the medium's coverage of the environment, the extent of information of interest the media transmits to its receivers.

5-     The medium’s access to feedback.

6-     The possibility of having a message repeated to satisfy receivers needs.

1.7.5 Non Verbal Communication:


It is a fundamental human interaction where speech alone is unable to deal with it.  It is communication that can occur without words at all.


The sender has at least four main sets of physical non – verbal cues: face, eyes, body, and voice.

a)        The face includes frowning, smiling and grimacing.

b)        The eyes can signal by direction of gaze.

c)        The body offers posture positions of arms and legs and distancing.

d)        Voice includes tone and speech rhythm.


The receiver has five primary senses: vision, hearing, touch, taste and smell. There are five functional categories of non-verbal communication:

a)     Emblems movements that are substituted for words.

b)     Illustrators movements that accompany speech and accent.

c)      Regulators movements that maintain or signal a change in speaking and listening roles.

d)     Adaptors movements related to individual need or emotional state.

e)     Effect particularly the facial expressions showing emotions.


1.7.6 Kinds of Non-Verbal Language:


1. Language of facial expression: In general a smile, a scowl or a frown has a universal meaning. A frown may be dislike, or disapproval, or puzzlement. A smile may be love, happiness, amusement, or kindness.

2. Language of eye contact: There are a number of messages communicated by glances such as: involvement, hostility, command and others.

3. Language of posture: The more the person leans towards the individual he is talking to, the more positively he feels about the person and vice versa.

4. Language of voice: Voice variations may convey anger, fear, grief … etc.

5. Language of apparel: The way we dress communicates something about us all of us wear uniforms such as work clothes, play clothes, formal dress, .. etc.  Our dress reflects our respect for those whom we visit, or go out with.  Also it is assumed that young people who wear glasses tend to be judged as more seniors and intelligent.

6. Language of color: Warm colors – such as yellow, orange, and red – stimulate creativity and make people feel outgoing, and responsive to others. Cool colors encourage meditation and also may discourage conversation.

7. Language of odor: Odors have a profound ability to recall memories out of one’s past. Food smells remind one of his mother’s cooking, flowers of springtime … etc.

8. Language of time: People and culture have a unique culture clock. In Egypt you can be for half an hour late for a party, or business appointment. On the other hand, in Europe you can’t be late for neither of them.

9. Language of space: Every individual seems to develop a distance at which he prefers to interact with others Latin Americans like to talk with each other closely while North Americans maintain a considerable distance.


1.7.7 Organizational Communication:


It is a form of interpersonal communication that takes place within definite boundaries.  It is concerned with the achievement of the goals of that organization.  It has the characteristics of inter personal.  Each member of the organization is obliged to communicate in certain ways.


Different organizations share similar characteristics:

1-     They all have members interacting with each other occupying various social positions and playing social roles.

2-     Norms of appropriate behavior members with standards of appropriate methods of communication some patterns are rewarded and reinforced others are disapproved.

3-     Communication through organizations becomes predicted because of the direction, frequency form and content of messages exchanges.

4-     Organizational communication act remains dyadic or a two-person interaction. The messages exchanged are transmitted from one person to another then from that person to another and so on.

5-     Major transmission in organizational communication is oral, yet it also include print in form of memos and cards.

6-     The official routes of organizational communication are formal channels of communication.  It is concerned with the dissemination of information to the members of the group.


1.8 Communication Context

1.8 Communication Context


Communication transactions always occur within, and are constrained by, several critical contexts.  By contexts, we mean the environments where communication takes place, including the there are four critical communication contexts, other communicators involve in the transaction.



1.8.1 The Cultural Context


Cultural influences are an inherent aspect of all communicative transactions. The term “Culture” refers to the sum of language, values, beliefs, habits, and practices shared by a large group of people. These characteristics comprise the cultural context of communication. Understanding the cultural context contributes greatly to effective environmental management, for without some appreciation of the cultural milieu, communication is doomed to failure.


1.8.2 The Sociological Context


Just as every one belongs to a culture, each person also belongs to many groups within the culture.  The sociological context of communication refers to the sum of the individual’s group memberships as well as the roles as societal with those memberships.


1.8.3 The Physical Context


Does the communication transaction occur over coffee during a hurried 15 minute break? Or, does it occur over a leisurely dinner at one of the town’s nicest restaurants?  Depending on the specific location where the communication occurs, there will be varying degrees of competing stimuli as well as varying degrees of “openness” on the part of the communication participants. Within the general location of the communication transaction, studies have indicated that specific arrangement of seating affects the communication process.  In large group meetings, rows of seats facing a single speaker will create a very different context than concentric circle seat with a speaker standing in the center of the circle.


The total number of receivers involved in the communication transaction must be considered.  In general, interaction both verbally and nonverbally decreases as the number of receivers' increases.


Does the communication occur in the morning, in the afternoon, or in the evening? If the communication occurs too early in the morning, receivers may not be as alert as they will be later in the day, on the other hand, communication very late in the day may be influenced by listeners who are simply too exhausted to accurately receive and understand the message.


In reality, it is difficult to separate the physical from the psychological context, for they operate interdependently.


For example, the numbers of receivers influence the psychological as well as the physical communication context.  If only fifteen people attend a meeting for which over a hundred were anticipated, interaction between speaker and audience may increase, but the effectiveness of that interaction may be negated by the psychological impact of the low attendance.  On the other hand, if many more people attend a meeting than were anticipated, a feeling of excitement and satisfaction about the excellent response may enable communicators to more than compensate for problems created by the physically crowded conditions.



Culture and Communication

1.9 Culture and Communication


Culture is the way people think, act, live and communicate. On other hand, culture is communication; the two are very much bound together.  A culture develops as the result of interpersonal communication – the communication between people that we are concerned with.  At the same time, the form, the nature, the make up of the culture results from the interaction of the people and the place and time in which they live.  The “interaction of people” is just another way of saying “communication”.  Living together, working together, relating to one another is communication, we are always communicating – or attempting to communicate.


Perhaps the simplest way to explain culture and its relationship to communication is to say that people are different: we live, work in different societies, environment and climates, and we adapt to these in different ways.


As a result of living in different societies, environments, and climates, people develop special needs, acquire habits and customs peculiar to themselves, and have experience which, in general result in particular patterns and methods and forms of expression and relating with one another. Many examples of this could be given.


People in a warm, tropical climate, for example, live quite differently from people in a northern urban area.  They live in a much more relaxed style from what we are accustomed to – life is much simpler.


We need to know about people and their background if we are to understand their communication. It is important for you to remember that people in different cultures and countries do not do things as we do them in our country, for example. Before you do business with foreigners, you should check carefully on local customs, cultures, and communication.


Remember that people do things differently remember, too, that people communicate in term of their own experiences.  Do not be offended and communicate offensively when something out of the ordinary happens.  The situation may appear unusual to your frame of reference because it is not within the range of your experience; the situation may be perfectly “normal” to everyone else.


Our communication is surrounded by barriers of human behavior and language, our communication attempts also are complicated by cultural barriers.


Many cultural differences take the form of nonverbal communication.  If a person frowns while listening to your speak, it may indicate doubt or disagreement; on the other hand, the person may have a headache or the light may be bothersome. It is important for you to remain alert to nonverbal signals, but it is also essential that you understand them accurately.


1.10 Conclusion

1.10 Conclusion 

In this chapter we focused on communication as human phenomena.  We proposed definitions, forms, contexts in with communication process function.  According, to all above topic one can recognize the comprehensive communication model as shown in Figure 1.9.


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