1.7 Forms of
There are various classifications of forms of
communication. Basically we can distinguish between two main
forms of communication.
1. Verbal communication:
communication such as talking to oneself,
dialogue, discussion between two people, telephone calls.
such as maps, graphic, traffic signals, advertisement …etc.
such as memos, letters reports, papers.
which is communication facilitated by an interface with a
computer, modem, telephone fax, E-mail …etc, as shown in
Such as body
movement facial expression and voice etc.
these basic forms of communication, many researchers agreed
to classify forms of communication as:
It is a
communication transaction that takes place within the
individual, this is the silent talking all of us do to
ourselves such as thinking, remembering, dreaming and
deciding. Intrapersonal communication is made possible
because man become object to himself. That is he both
produces and receives to same message. This type of
communication fills more time in our experience because in
every communication are always subject to our own private
It is the
process of face-to-face interaction between sender and
receiver such as group meetings, interviews,
conversations among individuals. It has the advantage of a
two-way communication with immediate feedback.
Characteristics of interpersonal communication:
There is a perceptual engagement on the part of two
or more people in physical proximity.
Perceptual engagement allows focused interaction between
a single focus of cognitive and visual attention as in a
conversation. In focused interaction, each participant
supplies cues supplies by other participant.
this focused interaction, there will be an exchange of
messages. In this exchange, the participants represent
to each other cues they think the other will interpret as
interaction is face to face, therefore all senses may
be utilized and participants confront each other totally.
interpersonal setting is unstructured; few rules govern
form or content of interpersonal messages.
communication is very effective in influencing attitudes
and behavior. Hazarded focused in its
characteristics in that field:
Personal contacts are casual, difficult to avoid.
People are likely to put their trust in the judgment
and view point of persons whom they know, like and respect.
Personal communication influence people through what is
said and by personal control in which the source is as
important as the content itself.
There is a great flexibility in the content of
interpersonal communication. If the communication meets
resistance from the receivers, he can change the line to
meet their reaction.
face-to-face communication a person can ask questions,
help direct the communication and make some control over it.
face-to-face situation, there is a chance for quick
exchange of information. Two-way communication that
gives a chance for immediate feedback to evaluate the effect
of the signs one puts out, to correct to explain and to
face-to-face communication it is possible to stimulate
all the senses. It is also possible to communicate more
for complete information.
face-to-face communication high percentage of the
available information is non-verbal. The silent language
of culture, gesture, body movement constitutes a large part
of interpersonal communication.
1.7.1 Medio Communication
It is the
area of communication which interfaces between
interpersonal communication and mass communication. It is an
intermediate level of communication. Medio is derived from
Latin, meaning middle.
communication is distinguished by the presence of
technical instrument used under restricted conditions.
communication is similar to mass communication in the
Participants in media can be heterogeneous.
Participant also can be in different physical locations.
presence of a technical channel.
communication is similar to interpersonal communication in:
Source and receiver are known to each other.
message is private more than public.
Message receivers are small in number.
interaction pattern is to a fair degree, unstructured.
communication includes point-to-point tele-communication,
surveillance telecommunication, closed circuit television
and home movies.
It is a
special type of communication that uses electromagnetic
devices to cover distance. It has similar audience
characteristics with interpersonal communication.
Point-to-point communication includes telephone, teletype,
telegraph, mobile, radio, air-to-ground radio.
1.7.3 Surveillance Telecommunication
It is used for
“scanning the horizon” for danger signals.
Surveillance telecommunication includes radar,
atmospheric pollution monitoring, weather satellite and
other such telecommunication systems.
1.7.4 Mass Communication:
It is the
process through which communication is directed
simultaneously (immediately) to a large, heterogeneous
(different) and anonymous (unknown) audience on a massive
transmitted publicly and are transient in nature. The
communicator works in a complex organization.
media includes the following:
news papers magazines, books etc.
radio programs, audio recordings, T.V. programs.
media advent required two developments:
relatively advent technology to produce the necessary
accompanying level of literacy among large numbers of
people to utilize the disseminated information.
The mass media
may also be compared on the following dimensions:
medium fidelity (objectivity) in presenting the following
dimensions of an original event:
medium’s delivery speed, the length of time between
an event and when the medium is able to inform people about
medium’s portability, the ease with which the medium
can be moved about the environment, both to cover news
stories and to reach its audience.
extensiveness of the medium's coverage of the
environment, the extent of information of interest the media
transmits to its receivers.
medium’s access to feedback.
possibility of having a message repeated to satisfy
1.7.5 Non Verbal Communication:
It is a
fundamental human interaction where speech alone is unable
to deal with it. It is communication that can occur
without words at all.
The sender has
at least four main sets of physical non – verbal
cues: face, eyes, body, and voice.
face includes frowning, smiling and grimacing.
eyes can signal by direction of gaze.
body offers posture positions of arms and legs and
Voice includes tone and speech rhythm.
receiver has five primary senses: vision, hearing,
touch, taste and smell. There are five functional
categories of non-verbal communication:
that are substituted for words.
that accompany speech and accent.
that maintain or signal a change in speaking and listening
related to individual need or emotional state.
Effect particularly the facial expressions showing
1.7.6 Kinds of Non-Verbal Language:
of facial expression:
In general a
smile, a scowl or a frown has a universal meaning.
A frown may be dislike, or disapproval, or puzzlement. A
smile may be love, happiness, amusement, or kindness.
of eye contact:
There are a
number of messages communicated by glances such as:
involvement, hostility, command and others.
The more the
person leans towards the individual he is talking to,
the more positively he feels about the person and vice
variations may convey anger, fear, grief … etc.
The way we
dress communicates something about us all of us wear
uniforms such as work clothes, play clothes, formal dress,
.. etc. Our dress reflects our respect for those whom we
visit, or go out with. Also it is assumed that young people
who wear glasses tend to be judged as more seniors and
Warm colors –
such as yellow, orange, and red – stimulate creativity and
make people feel outgoing, and responsive to others. Cool
colors encourage meditation and also may discourage
Odors have a
profound ability to recall memories out of one’s past. Food
smells remind one of his mother’s cooking, flowers of
springtime … etc.
culture have a unique culture clock. In Egypt you can be for
half an hour late for a party, or business appointment. On
the other hand, in Europe you can’t be late for neither of
individual seems to develop a distance at which he prefers
to interact with others Latin Americans like to talk with
each other closely while North Americans maintain a
1.7.7 Organizational Communication:
It is a form of interpersonal
communication that takes place within definite
boundaries. It is concerned with the achievement
of the goals of that organization. It has the
characteristics of inter personal. Each member of the
organization is obliged to communicate in certain ways.
Different organizations share similar
They all have members interacting with
each other occupying various social positions and
playing social roles.
Norms of appropriate behavior
members with standards of appropriate methods of
communication some patterns are rewarded and reinforced
others are disapproved.
Communication through organizations becomes
predicted because of the direction, frequency form
and content of messages exchanges.
Organizational communication act remains
dyadic or a two-person interaction. The messages
exchanged are transmitted from one person to another then
from that person to another and so on.
Major transmission in organizational
communication is oral, yet it also include print in
form of memos and cards.
The official routes of organizational
communication are formal channels of communication.
It is concerned with the dissemination of information to the
members of the group.